A few points about Alexander Kulik’s “How the Devil Got His Hooves and Horns”

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Alexander Kulik (Faculty of Humanities at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem) wrote a paper titled, “How the Devil Got His Hooves and Horns” (Brill’s NVMEN #60, 2013) which “reexamines the problem of the origins of a popular medieval and modern image of the devil as an anthropomorphic creature with hooves and horns and seeks to reconstruct the analogous ancient image of a satyr-like devil as it could be witnessed in diverse sources, including Hellenistic mythology, rabbinic legends, and early Christian texts.”

Oddly, he did not reference Ezekiel chaps 1 and 10 within his paper at all.


Alexander Kulik (Faculty of Humanities at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem) wrote a paper titled, “How the Devil Got His Hooves and Horns” (Brill’s NVMEN #60, 2013) which “reexamines the problem of the origins of a popular medieval and modern image of the devil as an anthropomorphic creature with hooves and horns and seeks to reconstruct the analogous ancient image of a satyr-like devil as it could be witnessed in diverse sources, including Hellenistic mythology, rabbinic legends, and early Christian texts.”

Oddly, he did not reference Ezekiel chaps 1 and 10 within his paper at all.

Certainly, popular medieval and modern images of the Devil are most often utterly unbiblical however, the Devil really does have hooves and horns.

The first step is recognizing that Angels, Cherubim, and Seraphim are different categories of being: they have different titled, different job functions, and they look different from one another.

The second step is recognizing that that the dragon, that old serpent who is called the Devil and Satan (see Revelation chaps 12 and 20) is not an Angel but is a Cherub (Ezekiel 28:14).

The third step is to consider that which Ezekiel specifies about Cherubim in chaps 1 and 10 the key features are that they have “this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man” so “an anthropomorphic creature” yet, “every one had four faces” one of which was the face of an ox, which implies horns if it is not just a face but the top part of the head as well. Also, “their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot” thus, hooves.

Thus, when we apply what the Bible actually states to understanding Satan, he does not look like a human male with two wings (in fact, neither do Angels since they do not have wings). He is basically anthropomorphic but with four faces, hoof-like feet, and four wings.

For some related info, see my books (on which I am offering a money saving deal):
What Does the Bible Say About Angels? A Styled Angelology

What Does the Bible Say About Demons? A Styled Demonology

What Does the Bible Say About the Devil Satan? A Styled Satanology

What Does the Bible Say About Various Paranormal Entities? A Styled Paranormology

What Does the Bible Say About Giants and Nephilim? A Styled Giantology and Nephilology

The Apocryphal Nephilim and Giants: Encountering Sons of God, Nephilim, and Giants in Extra-Biblical Texts

The Scholarly Academic Nephilim and Giants: What do Scholarly Academics
Say About Nephilim Giants?

On the Genesis 6 Affair’s Sons of God: Angels or Not? A survey of early Jewish and Christian commentaries including notes on giants and the Nephilim

The Paranormal in Early Jewish and Christian Commentaries: Over a Millennia’s Worth of Comments on Angels, Cherubim, Seraphim, Satan, the Devil, Demons, the Serpent and the Dragon

Nephilim and Giants as per Pop-Researchers: A comprehensive consideration of the claims of I.D.E. Thomas, Chuck Missler, Dante Fortson, Derek Gilbert, Brian Godawa, Patrick Heron, Thomas Horn, Ken Johnson, L.A. Marzulli, Josh Peck, CK Quarterman, Steve Quayle, Rob Skiba, Gary Wayne, Jim Wilhelmsen, et al.

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